From the 28th of April till 2nd June 2012 the reflection seismic measurements in the vicinity of Erfurt were taken. In order to accomplish a traveltime tomography, 10 one-channel geophones were positioned around the area. Each receiver recorded 15644 seismograms. The diploma thesis showed the way from the seismic data acquisition in the Thuringian Basin to a traveltime inversion, which results in a one-dimensional velocity model. Thereby, signal processing methods and numerical knowledge are used and enhanced. A new method of traveltime determination of seismic signals was presented. Using this method gives very accurate first arrival times even for poor quality signals. Hence, first arrivals were apparent up to a source to receiver distance of about seven kilometers. The method uses a genetic algorithm to solve an optimization problem in order to find pattern shifts between certain seismic traces. With the obtained traveltimes, a 1-D tomography was accomplished. In order to do this calculation, two different forward modeling methods are used and compared. The chosen method was the eikonal solution due to faster calculations and the more accurate results. In order to calculate the ray path accurately, a new ray tracing method was developed and applied. The main result is a 1-D primary wave velocity model of the investigation area. This model is a good first approach for geological interpretation and serves as an initial model for further calculations.